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DispatchFactbookCulture

by The People's Republic of Kladderstan. . 19 reads.

kladd

0. Introduction
Q is a Qrc language, spoken by the Q people of Q, R and S; as well as by minority populations in certain historical Q colonies spread around CCL. The Qrc language family, of which Q is the most widely spoken language, consists of Q and I.

Q is a marginally agglutinative language, which to a balanced degree employ both affixing and isolating grammatical marking strategies.
bladi bladi bla, yadi yadi ya.

Q is heavily dialectified, with quite substantial differences between dialects on opposite sides of the language area. This grammar sketch will concentrate on the official form of the language called book Q, which is a conservative construct based on the prestige sociolect of the capital U. Chapter 7 will briefly discuss the dialects of Q with comparison between certain major dialect areas.

Chapter 1. Phonological system
Q has 17 consonants and 7 vowels, as well as 7 diphtongs.

1.1. Consonants

Bilabial

Alveolar

Palatal

Velar ~ glottal

Plosive

p b

t d

k ~ ʔ [k] g

Nasal

m

n

Fricative

f ~ v [v]

s

ɕ [c] ʑ ~ ʒ [j]

x ~ h [h]

Affricate

t͡s ~ t͡ʃ [c]

Sibilant

s

Tap/flap

r

Lateral

l

Approximant

j [y]

Consonantal allopophony:
[k] has two realisations:
/k/
/ʔ/

[v] has two realisations:
/f/
/v/

[c] has three realisations:
/t͡ʃ/ preceding non-close vowels and non-close-starting diphtongs in initial stressed position and medial unstressed position
/t͡s/ preceding close vowels and close-starting diphtongs in initial stressed and medial position regardless of stress
/ɕ/ in initial unstressed position and stressed medial and final position.

[j] has two realisations:
/ʑ/
/ʒ/

[h] has two realisations:
/x/
/h/

1.2. Vowels
Pure vowels:

Front

Central

Back

Close

i

ɨ ~ y [y]

u

Mid

e

o ~ ɔ [o]

Open

æ [ä]

ɐ ~ ɑ [a]

Diphtongs:

Front

Central

Central to back

Back to front

Back

Close to mid

ie

ue

uo

Mid to close

ei

ou

Mid to open

ea

Open to mid

ae

Open to close

au

1.3 Stress and pitch
Primary stress is lexical with a marginal preference on the primary syllable. Exceptions are marked by an accent on the vowel of the stressed syllable. Secondary stress is assigned to the third syllable following the primarily stressed syllable, unless on final syllables where it will be shifted leftwards to semifinal syllable. Primary stress is realised as a marked higher pitch and greater force. Secondary stress is realised as slightly higher pitch. Pitch tends to decrease throughout the words, with the final syllable of a question word and the final word of a question utterance receiving a rising pitch.

Chapter 2. Nominals
Nominals are those parts of speech that can act as arguments of verbs. In Q, they consists of free pronouns, nouns and modifiers. Common for all of these are that they are marked by suffixation for case, and can optionally be modified by syntactic elements for number and demonstrativeness including dexis. Different nominals can also modify each other; free pronouns are used to mark number on nouns and modifiers can be used adjectively on both nouns and pronouns.

2.2 Free pronouns.
The pronominal system of Q distinguish three numbers; singular, dual and plural.

1st person inclusive: enu / enäm / inä - I / we two / we >2
1st person exclusive: - / emem / ime - we two (but not you) / we >2 (but not you)

2nd person distinguish three degrees of closeness, with only singular distinguishing between all three.
2nd person intimate: adie / edim / idi
2nd person general: edie / edim / idi
2nd person polite: idie / idim / idi

3rd person does not distinguish between gender nor animacy.
3rd person: ata / etem / ite (he, she, it / they (2) / they (>2))
4th person is used to mark a continued reference of a 3rd person when a new 3rd person is mentioned.
4th person: ise (no number distinction)

2.3 Nouns

2.4 Modifiers

Chapter 3. Verbals
Q verbals come in two distinct classes: verbs and preverbs. Verbs are the most numerous among these. It's an open word class with a great variety and sometimes fluent borders towards other wordclasses such as nouns and modifiers. In a sentence, verbs usually follow a subject or an inflected preverb. Some verbs require a preverb, and all verbs require a preverb to specify past tense (in opposition to non-past tense) as well as imperfective aspect (roughly corresponding to future tense).

Verbs take personal marking (by suffix) for:
1) the object of the sentence (or clause) in monotransitive sentences (ones with one subject/agent and one object/patient),
2) the indirect object in ditransitive sentences (ones with one subject/patient and two objects (indirect/recipient, direct/theme)
3) the sole argument of intransitive sentences (sentences with just one subject/argument) (making Kuerhyét typologically a language with syntactic eregative marking - a very rare thing in natural languages).

Preverbs on the other hand, is a small, closed class of verbs. As the name implies, they usually comes as the first element of the sentence or clause. They take personal marking for:
1) subject (agent) of transitive sentences (both mono- and ditransitive)
2) subject (sole argument) of intransitive sentences, unless there is a verb as well in the clause.

Personal marking paradigm
P: sg / du / pl (translation)
1.p exclusive: -nu / -näm / -nä (I, me / we two, not you / we more than two, not you)
1.p inclusive: - / -mem / -me (we two, you included / we more than two, you included)
2.p: -die / -dim / - di (you / you two / you more than two)
3.p: -ta / -team / -tea (it/he/she / they/them two / they/them)
3. overt: -in (used when the 3.p person referent is imediately mentioned after the inflected verbal)
0.p -so (indefinite pronoun (some) as well as reflexive (-self/-selves)

-nu 1.p.sg is mandatory in verbs but may be dropped in preverbs.

There are no more than nine preverbs, and they have two supplemental forms for each of the tenses; non-past and past.
The nine preverbs in their two forms are:

Non-past / Past - function: example sentence(s)
hä / hea - adjectival copula: Häta hihälí - that’s funny. Hea(nu) ibiyú - I was thirsty
ne / nean - nominal copula: Nedie hyéthauayín? - Are you a conlanger?
na / nau - locational copula: Naumem mueda? - Where were we (two)?
yu / yoa - negative copula: Yu häta suyí! - it’s not red!
tuo / tue - imperfect copula: Tuoso bietä - It’s going to rain.
jie / jeat - to have (to own): Jeatdi suipúe hakí - they had a black cat
haua / heyet - to do, make, happen: Hauanu suina - I’m making dinner
huä / het - to arrive, to come: Hetin babudie yapalic - Your father came yesterday
eyer / ayet - to leave, to go: Eyernä icic - We’re leaving now

As you can see from the samples, there can be more than one preverb per sentence, where usually only the last one of these have personal marking.

Chapter 4. Syntax

Q verbal morphology is both affixing and isolating.

Suinä - to eat, eating
Suinänu - I eat, I’m eating
Suinädie - thou’re eating
Suinta - (s)he/it’s eating

Suinänäm - the two of us but not you are eating
Suinämem - thou and me are eating
Suinädim - the two of you’re eating
Suinteam - the two of them are eating

Suinä - we but not you are eating
Suinäme - we’re eating
Suinädi - you’re eating
Suintea - they’re are eating

Suinäso - someone is/are eating
There’s a spescial form for mentioning who is eating:
Suinin Marya - Marya is eating

Here, suinä is used as an intransitive verb, IE one without an object. In transitive sentences, the personal marking on the verb is reserved for the object, and the subject is either free-standing or marked on a preverb:
Enu suinin ohu - I’m eating an apple
Adie/edie/idie* suinin ohu - thou’re eating an apple
Ata suinin ohu - (s)he/it’s eating an apple
Dual and plural can be inferred from the above list.
*Intimate/general/polite form

Tense and aspect marking is isolating, and done with a preverb:
Suinänu - I’m eating
Hau suinänu - I am eating (with marked progressive aspect, I am in the process of eating)
Hua suinänu - I ate, I have been eating
Huä suinänu - I have (just) finished eating
Het suinänu - I finised eating (some time in the past)
Eyer suinänu - I (just now) started eating
Ayet suinänu - I started eating (some time in the past)
Tuo suinänu - I’m going to eat
Tuet suinänu - I was going to eat
Na suinänu - I use to eat
Nena suinänu - I used to eat
(This list is not exhaustive, and I’ve probably not even worked out all forms yet..)

Adding an object, thus turning suinä into a transitive verb will mean the subject (or more correctly, agent) is marked on the preverb. It’s never wrong to mark every subject on the preverb, but 1p.sg (I) can be omitted on certain preverbs, and 3p.sg can be omitted on others.. (I might edit in a list and a bit more explanations later, but I’m kindof running out of time rn..):

Hua suinta / huanu suinta - I ate it.
Nenayin Mihala suinin buiju - Mihal used to eat snot
There is also negator yu, yes/no-question verbal suffix -cyi and question particle ci:
Yudie nenacyi suinin buiju ci? - You didn't use to eat snot, did you?

Distinguish three numbers; singular, dual and plural.

1st person inclusive: enu / enäm / inä - I / we two / we >2
1st person exclusive: - / emem / ime - we two (but not you) / we >2 (but not you)

2nd person distinguish three degrees of closeness, with only singular distinguishing between all three.
2nd person intimate: adie / edim / idi
2nd person general: edie / edim / idi
2nd person polite: idie / idim / idi

3rd person does not distinguish between gender nor animacy.
3rd person: ata / etem / ite (he, she, it / they (2) / they (>2))
4th person is used to mark a continued reference of a 3rd person when a new 3rd person is mentioned.
4th person: ise (no number distinction)

Q verbals come in two distinct classes: verbs and preverbs. Verbs are the most numerous among these. It's an open word class with a great variety and sometimes fluent borders towards other wordclasses such as nouns and modifiers. In a sentence, verbs usually follow a subject or an inflected preverb. Some verbs require a preverb, and all verbs require a preverb to specify past tense (in opposition to non-past tense) as well as imperfective aspect (roughly corresponding to future tense).

Verbs take personal marking (by suffix) for:
1) the object of the sentence (or clause) in monotransitive sentences (ones with one subject/agent and one object/patient),
2) the indirect object in ditransitive sentences (ones with one subject/patient and two objects (indirect/recipient, direct/theme)
3) the sole argument of intransitive sentences (sentences with just one subject/argument) (making Kuerhyét typologically a language with syntactic eregative marking - a very rare thing in natural languages).

Preverbs on the other hand, is a small, closed class of verbs. As the name implies, they usually comes as the first element of the sentence or clause. They take personal marking for:
1) subject (agent) of transitive sentences (both mono- and ditransitive)
2) subject (sole argument) of intransitive sentences, unless there is a verb as well in the clause.

Personal marking paradigm
P: sg / du / pl (translation)
1.p exclusive: -nu / -näm / -nä (I, me / we two, not you / we more than two, not you)
1.p inclusive: - / -mem / -me (we two, you included / we more than two, you included)
2.p: -die / -dim / - di (you / you two / you more than two)
3.p: -ta / -team / -tea (it/he/she / they/them two / they/them)
3. overt: -in (used when the 3.p person referent is imediately mentioned after the inflected verbal)
0.p -so (indefinite pronoun (some) as well as reflexive (-self/-selves)

-nu 1.p.sg is mandatory in verbs but may be dropped in preverbs.

There are no more than nine preverbs, and they have two supplemental forms for each of the tenses; non-past and past.
The nine preverbs in their two forms are:

Non-past / Past - function: example sentence(s)
hä / hea - adjectival copula: Häta hihälí - that’s funny. Hea(nu) ibiyú - I was thirsty
ne / nean - nominal copula: Nedie hyéthauayín? - Are you a conlanger?
na / nau - locational copula: Naumem mueda? - Where were we (two)?
yu / yoa - negative copula: Yu häta suyí! - it’s not red!
tuo / tue - imperfect copula: Tuoso bietä - It’s going to rain.
jie / jeat - to have (to own): Jeatdi suipúe hakí - they had a black cat
haua / heyet - to do, make, happen: Hauanu suina - I’m making dinner
huä / het - to arrive, to come: Hetin babudie yapalic - Your father came yesterday
eyer / ayet - to leave, to go: Eyernä icic - We’re leaving now

As you can see from the samples, there can be more than one preverb per sentence, where usually only the last one of these have personal marking.

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