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Constitution of the United Kingdom

The Constitution of United Kingdom

We, the People of United Kingdom, in order to establish a system of self-governance to emulate, as far as practicable, British society, do hereby endorse, ordain, and enact this Fourth Constitution of United Kingdom.

Article I - Parliament

(1) The Parliament of United Kingdom shall exercise the legislative power of the region. The Parliament shall consist of two chambers, the House of Commons and the House of Lords.

(2) The House of Commons shall consist of a number of Citizens, not fewer than five, elected by Citizens of United Kingdom as Members of Parliament as provided for by law and in such manner and from among such Citizens as Parliament may, by law, direct; provided that, for each Session of Parliament, each Citizen shall be entitled to cast a vote for at least one seat in the House of Commons.

(a) The Speaker of the House of Commons shall be the presiding officer of the House of Commons and shall oversee debates and votes on all matters before the chamber. The Speaker shall be a Member of Parliament and shall be elected by the House of Commons. The House of Commons shall have the power to remove the Speaker by a simple majority vote of no confidence. In the event that the House of Commons is unable to elect a Speaker, and a vacancy in that Office lasts for at least four days, the Crown shall appoint the Speaker.

(3) The House of Lords shall consist of three Lords of Parliament, each appointed by the Crown from among the nobility of the region. No person may serve as a Lord who holds any elected Office under this Constitution or any law of Parliament.

(a) The Crown shall appoint a Lord Speaker who shall be the presiding officer of the House of Lords and shall oversee debates and votes on all matters before the chamber.

(4) In both chambers of the Parliament, legislation shall be introduced, debated, amended, and approved or disapproved publicly.

(a) Legislation originating in the House of Commons shall be considered approved if the bill attains a simple majority vote in support in the appropriate timeframe for voting. Upon receiving the approval of the House of Commons, the Speaker, or another appropriate official as designated consistent with the law, shall present the bill to the House of Lords for consideration.

(b) Legislation originating in the House of Lords shall be considered approved if the bill attains a simple majority vote in support in the appropriate timeframe for voting. Upon receiving the approval of the House of Lords, the Lord Speaker, or another appropriate official as designated consistent with the law, shall present the bill to the House of Commons for consideration.

(c) If either chamber shall amend legislation presented by the other chamber, upon the approval of the amending chamber, the presiding officer, or another appropriate official as designated consistent with the law, shall return the bill to the originating chamber for consideration of the amendments. If the originating chamber concurs in the amendments, the presiding officer, or another appropriate official as designated consistent with the law, shall present the bill to the Crown for Royal Assent.

(d) No bill shall become law unless it shall obtain the approval of both chambers of the Parliament and receive Royal Assent from the Crown; provided that, if the Crown shall neither assent to the bill nor veto it within three days of its presentation, the bill shall become law automatically. The Crown shall have the power to veto any bill presented, and, upon so doing, the Crown shall return the bill to the originating chamber along with the Crown's objections. The Parliament may, upon reconsideration of the bill and notwithstanding the royal veto, enact the bill into law by approving the same bill in both chambers.

(e) The Parliament shall not have the power to approve any bill of attainder affecting the guilt or punishment of specific persons or entities, any bill affecting the granting or revoking of titles of nobility, any bill retroactively increasing criminal liability, or any bill inconsistent with the provisions of this Constitution.

(5) The House of Commons shall have the power, by an absolute two-thirds majority vote of all authorized seats for its Session, to remove from office any Executive, Judicial, or Royal Officer under this Constitution or law of Parliament, unless otherwise provided for by this Constitution.

(6) Both chambers shall have the power to adopt their own rules of procedure. The House Commons shall have the power, by an absolute two-thirds majority vote of all authorized seats for its Session, to expel a Member or Lord of Parliament. The Crown shall have the power to remove appointed Lords of Parliament.

Article II - The Government

(1) The Government of United Kingdom shall exercise the executive authority of the region. The Government shall consist of the Prime Minister as the Head of Government, a Deputy Prime Minister, and any other such Cabinet Officers as the Prime Minister shall designate.

(2) The Prime Minister shall be democratically elected. No person shall be declared Prime Minister who shall not have won more than half of all votes cast for that Office in the Election. Should no candidate attain the necessary majority, the candidates with the two highest vote totals shall stand immediately in a runoff election. Should no victor emerge in the runoff, the House of Commons shall select the Prime Minister from among the remaining candidates with the two highest vote totals.

(3) The Prime Minister shall have the authority to appoint all Cabinet Officers, and all Cabinet Officers shall serve at the Prime Ministerís pleasure or until such time as removed from Office as provided in this Constitution or pursuant to any other valid law.

(4) In the event that the Prime Minister resigns or is removed from office, the Deputy Prime Minister shall serve as Acting Prime Minister until a new Prime Minister is elected. In any instance in which the Prime Minister is unable to exercise the powers and authority of the Office, the same shall devolve unto the Deputy Prime Minister during the period of incapacity. The Prime Minister may, in a manner provided by law, establish further provisions for the transfer of the powers and authority of the Prime Minister to other Cabinet Officers for instances in which the Prime Minister, or an officer acting as or on behalf thereof, shall be unable to exercise those powers and authority.

(5) In order to remove the Prime Minister from office, the House of Commons must, by an absolute majority vote of all authorized seats for its Session, pass an Instrument of removal. Upon the passage of the Instrument, the House of Commons and the House of Lords shall sit together as a single chamber for the purpose of deciding whether to remove the Prime Minister from office, and the Lord Speaker shall preside over the deliberations. Final removal of the Prime Minister shall occur only if an absolute two-thirds majority of the entire authorized Parliament shall approve such removal, and the final vote on the question of removal shall occur no sooner than forty-eight hours after the House of Commons passes the Instrument of removal. While the Parliament deliberates, the Prime Minister shall have the Powers of the Office suspended, and the Deputy Prime Minister, or other appropriate Cabinet Officer as prescribed pursuant to law, shall serve as Acting Prime Minister.

Article III - The Judiciary

(1) The Crown Court, and any such inferior courts as Parliament shall establish by law, shall exercise the judicial power of the region.

(2) The judicial power of United Kingdom shall extend to all cases in law and equity, and the courts of United Kingdom, including the Crown Court, shall have jurisdiction over all citizens of United Kingdom and all persons acting within the territory of the region. The courts of United Kingdom, including the Crown Court, shall have authority over all cases and controversies arising under this Constitution, the laws of Parliament, the common law, and international treaties to which United Kingdom is a party. Parliament may, by law, establish procedures by which the courts of United Kingdom may consider legal questions outside of the context of a case or controversy in order to exercise the judicial power to provide binding guidance on those questions.

(3) Parliament shall have the power to enact legislation governing the rules and procedures of the Crown Court, including the power to provide for the creation of inferior judicial officers who may temporarily fill vacancies in the Crown Court with respect to the determination of cases when need arises, such as by virtue of recusal.

(4) Treason against United Kingdom shall consist of giving aid or comfort to the regionís enemies or participating in war against the region. The punishment for Treason shall be fixed by law.

Article IV - The Crown

(1) The Crown, the King or Queen of United Kingdom, shall be the Head of State for the region. No person shall serve as Crown who shall not have held citizenship in United Kingdom for a period of at least six consecutive months immediately preceding ascension, and no person shall be removed as Crown except by abdication, loss of citizenship, or pursuant to this Constitution.

(2) The Crown shall, at all times, maintain a list of the Line of Succession to the Throne, containing no fewer than the names of two citizens eligible to ascend as Crown. The person first in line to the throne will be the Prince of Wales or Princess of Wales. All persons in the Line of Succession shall be Royal Officers for the purposes of this Constitution.

(3) In order to remove the Crown from office, the House of Commons must, by an absolute two-third majority vote of all authorized seats for its Session, pass an Instrument of removal, which shall trigger a referendum on the ultimate question of removal, to be put to the Citizens at the next election of the Prime Minister. The threshold to remove the Crown by referendum shall be a two-thirds majority of those voting on the question. Immediately upon the triggering of the referendum, the powers, duties, privileges, immunities, and restrictions of the Crown shall devolve to the first person in the line of succession, to return to the Crown should the referendum of removal fail.

(4) The Crown shall have the power to grant and to revoke Estates and Titles of Nobility and, with the concurrence of the House of Commons, to grant Pardons and Commutations of Sentence.

(5) The Crown shall be the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and may declare War with the consent of the House of Commons.

(6) The Crown shall have the power, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and with the advice and consent of the House of Commons, to approve and dissolve treaties.

(7) The Crown shall have the power to assemble and to dissolve the Parliament and the Government and to issue writs for all Elections. The Crown shall take care that the House of Commons is elected at least once every ninety days and not more than once every thirty days, except on the recommendation of the House of Commons or the Head of Government, and that a Prime Minister is elected at least once every seventy days and not more than every fifteen days, except on the recommendation of the Head of Government or to fill a vacancy in that Office.

(8) The Crown shall not serve in any Legislative, Executive, or Judicial Office under this Constitution. The Prince or Princess of Wales may not hold any Elective Office under this Constitution or law of Parliament.

(9) When the Crown is absent from the region for a period of time or when he or she shall deem it necessary to do so, he or she shall have the authority to name a Crown Regent. The Crown Regent shall possess all of the powers, duties, privileges, and immunities of the Crown during the period of the regency. The Parliament may, by law, enact additional restrictions, regulations, and relevant provisions relating to the regency.

Article V - Amendments, Supremacy, and Ratification

(1) The Parliament, by an absolute two-thirds majority vote of all authorized seats for its Session in each chamber, shall have the power to present Amendments to this Constitution to the Citizens. No Amendment shall be ratified as part of this Constitution unless it shall obtain the approval of at least two-thirds of those voting on the question at the next election of the Prime Minister; provided that the Parliament may, when approving presentation of the Amendment, select a different date for such referendum. Amendments to the Constitution shall not require Royal Assent.

(2) The Constitution of United Kingdom shall be the Supreme Law of the region and, upon ratification, shall render all previous constitutions null and void.

(3) This Constitution shall be considered ratified upon the approval of a simple majority vote of all citizens and the subsequent signature of the reigning Sovereign, acting on behalf of the People.

Article VI - Rights of the People

(1) The Rights of the Citizens of United Kingdom, whether enumerated or unenumerated, are of paramount importance to the dignity and respect of all Persons and the flourishing of a Free Society. To that end, the government of United Kingdom shall not arbitrarily, capriciously, maliciously, willfully, illegally, or unreasonably infringe upon the Rights and Liberties of the Citizens of United Kingdom.

(2) All Citizens are subject to the Laws of United Kingdom and shall be Innocent until proven Guilty beyond a reasonable doubt, and no Citizen shall be made to suffer an unreasonably harsh punishment for any crime. No Citizen may be compelled to present self-incriminating evidence in Court, and no Citizen shall twice be put on Trial for the same offence unless further evidence is found and a writ is issued authorising another trial with the new evidence. No Citizen shall be deprived of Liberty or Property, or permanently deprived of Citizenship, without the Due Process of Law, and no Citizen shall be denied the Equal Protection of the Law.

(3) All Persons with a Nation in the region shall be eligible for citizenship, and, once attained, shall enjoy, for the duration of such citizenship, the Right

to Freedom of Speech and of Expression, and to petition the government for a redress of Grievances;

to Organize for Political purposes, subject to content-neutral regulation relating to official recognition of such organizations;

to a Fair, Speedy, and Public Trial in all Cases, and to Legal Counsel in all Criminal Cases;

to Vote in every Election for regional Office, for such contests as eligible to cast a Ballot under the Law;

to be Secure in their Privacy against Search and Seizure, except when such Search or Seizure is authorized by a valid Judicial Warrant and based on Probable Cause.

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